Cornhill and Candlewick Overview

Above: Outline map of the City of London. Today’s land is indicated in PINK. The old pre-2003 ward boundaries for the area of study are shown with a RED outline on the modern Google street map.

The area of study called ‘Cornhill and Candlewick’ consists of two complete wards and half of another. The Ward of Cornhill is in the shape of a slim triangle and is the most northerly of the three areas. To the south is the western half of the Ward of Langbourn. To the south of that is another quite small ward called Candlewick. These three areas form a sort of rectangle and represent a relatively small piece of land. If your life depended on it, you could probably walk quickly from the southern edge to the northern edge in about 10 minutes, maybe even less.

Just because the area of study is small it should not be dismissed as unimportant. Within the relatively small area of study is plenty of history and a large number of historic places of interest. Much of the story of banking in England started in London and in this area of study in particular. The birth of trading as we know it today started at the Royal Exchange and this led to the world of ‘stocks and shares’. It also led to the world of insurance. The ‘small area’ has an impressive array of ‘big history’ to be understood.

Ward of Cornhill

This ward is so-named because the principal street is called Cornhill. Notice that it is just called ‘Cornhill’, without the word ‘Street’ on the end. Cornhill may have been named after a cornfield in the area in very early times. John Stow says a corn market had been held there from ‘time out of mind’ – meaning that it had been there for centuries and he did not know when it had started. The street has always been one of the more important streets in the City of London. As an illustration of this, the Royal Exchange stands on the north side at the western end. From Tudor times to the 19th century, the Royal Exchange was one of the most important buildings for trading in the City of London.

Ward of Langbourn

This ward is in two halves, joined by the width of a single street. Its shape resembles that of a butterfly with outstretched wings. This area of study only includes the western half. The principal street is Lombard Street – named after the Lombards who came over to England from Italy in medieval times and carried on their trade as bankers. It is interesting to note that until a few years ago, the headquarters of Lloyd’s Bank and Barclay’s Bank both stood in this street.

Ward of Candlewick

This ward derived its name from candle-makers whose centre for their craft was Cannon Street which is the principal street of the ward. In medieval times, Cannon Street was known as ‘Candlewick Street’ – due to the candle-makers – which is how the ward derived its name. For reasons that are not clear, around the year 1600 the street began to be called ‘Canning Street’ and finally ‘Cannon Street’. The present name of the street has no connection either with cannons (that go ‘bang’) or with canons (who hold that title in the Church).

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St Gabriel Fenchurch

Above: St Gabriel’s churchyard – now called Fen Court Garden – surrounded by modern offices on the north side of Fenchurch Street.

The little church of St Gabriel stood in the middle of the roadway in Fenchurch Street. If we pause for a moment to reflect on the name of the street, it becomes obvious that its name was derived from the existence of this church. Having explained ‘church’ in ‘Fenchurch Street’ we will complete the derivation and now consider the syllable ‘Fen’ in the street name. This is a more problematic explanation. John Stow, in his ‘Survay of London’ published in 1603 says that it took the name of ‘Fennie’ or moorish ground through which the stream of ‘Langbourn’ ran. However, Stow adds that some people thought the name came from ‘faenum’ (Latin for ‘grass’) from the hay sold at Gracechurch Street Market.

In fact, there are no records to prove the existence of the mythical ‘Langbourne’ stream, nor to support the theory that the locality was low-lying or marshland, while the present levels certainly indicate the contrary. This second derivation certainly seems to be the more probable of the two because it is well-known that there was a hay market in nearby Gracechurch Street in medieval times.

The dedication of the church was after Gabriel – mentioned in the Bible in the Gospel of Luke in the stories of the Annunciation, in which the angel Gabriel appears to Zechariah and the Virgin Mary, foretelling the births of John the Baptist and Jesus, respectively (Luke 1:11–38).

Above: A City Plaque marking the site of St Gabriel.

Returning to the history of the church, there are frequent references to ‘Fancherche’ and the parish of ‘Fancherche’ or ‘Fencherche’ from 1170 onwards. In 1283 it was referred to as ‘All Hallows de Phanchurch’ and in 1315 the church was described as ‘St Mary de Farncherch’ and later still as ‘St Mary Fenchurch’ and ‘St Mary and All Saints’. According to Harben, the earliest reference to the church by the name of St Gabriel was 1526. Later references describe it as ‘St Mary and St Gabriel’.

Above: St Gabriel Fenchurch shown on the Agas map of c1561. Notice the well to the east of the church and the detached churchyard (with the stone cross in the middle). The three lanes on the south side of Fenchurch are (left to right) Philpot Lane, Rood Lane and Mincing Lane.

The little church stood in the centre of Fenchurch Street but there was no graveyard around it. A well is shown nearby, standing to the east of the building. In 1375 land was given for a burial place on the north side of Fenchurch Street. That piece of ground is still there and contains a few graves. It is used as a little garden in the City. The excerpt from the Agas map is probably the only visual representation of the church. It also shows the well and the graveyard to the north.

The church of St Gabriel was enlarged and beautified in 1631 but the work was only enjoyed for about 30 years because it was destroyed in the Great Fire of London (1666). The church was not rebuilt and the parish was united with that of St Margaret Pattens. The only evidence for the church is its churchyard. Just occasionally, parish markers can be found in the City from churches that were destroyed at the time of the Great Fire and not rebuilt. Unfortunately, in this case, no parish marker is to be seen.

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Forum

Above: A small fragment of a decorative fresco found on the site of the second Forum. The fragment once adorned a wall of a house owned by a wealthy Roman who lived near the first Forum in Londinium. The hand-painted work shows two deer.

In Roman times, no town was complete without its Basilica (or Town Hall) which was the centre of all administration and the Forum (or Market Place) which was usually adjacent. In the case of Londinium – which is now essentially land covered by the City of London today – the Forum lay to the south of the Basilica. The site of the Basilica stood on one of the highest points in Londinium. The land sloped southwards towards the Thames. In terms of today’s streets, the Forum extended across the modern Gracechurch Street and as far south as the western line of Fenchurch Street.

Above: The model of the Forum (near the camera) and the Basilica (along the top of the picture.

As the model shows, the Forum was a busy place, with market stalls, which acted as a general meeting place for the residents. Being so close to the Roman riverfront – which acted as the port for the settlement, with ships delivering cargoes of many commodities, including foods – the forum was well-placed to receive the many large amphorae (pottery storage jars) of wine and numerous pots of fish paste for which the Romans had a particular liking. We know all this because artefacts have been found in the ground during archaeological digs with traces of the contents still inside.

One interesting find was that of an ornate fresco that once adorned the residence of a wealthy Roman citizen who lived near the first Forum. It dates from the late 1st century – being the first decades of Londinium – and is one of the earliest surviving frescos to be found from Roman Britain. The fresco was discovered by a team of archaeologists working at 21 Lime Street at a level which lay six metres below today’s modern streets. The dig was undertaken before a new office development was erected on the empty site. During the 2nd century, the Romans demolished everything on the site of the first Forum and set about constructing a larger one. This resulted in the wall on which the fresco was painted being knocked over and subsequent structures being erected on top. The wall with its fresco lay in the ground for nearly 2,000 years before being discovered.

Above: View of the area from Google maps, showing the approximate site of the Forum.

On much of the site of the SW corner of the Forum, a large office block was built with a new Marks and Spencer store which opened at 168 Fenchurch Street, at the turn of the millennium. The store sells not only clothes but also has a large food store. Observers were quick to point out that the store was continuing the tradition of food being sold on the site which had started nearly two thousand years ago. The store extends along the north side of Fenchurch Street, from Gracechurch Street to Lime Street.

Above: Map showing the sites of the Basilica and the Forum.

As can be seen from the street map, today’s streets do align in part with either the Basilica and the Forum. It is likely that Lombard Street and Fenchurch Street possibly owe their alignment to the line of the southern edge of the Forum. However, Cornhill’s alignment does not seem to relate to the north side of the Basilica. This leads to the conclusion that after the Roman settlement fell into disuse, the late Saxons who lived within the walls of the ancient settlement did not relate to structures that had gone before.

It would be great if there was some tangible evidence for the ancient Forum. Plenty of archaeological remains have been found during several digs – including the fresco mentioned above. Sadly there is no masonry remaining on the site from the Forum, not even a decorative plaque erected in modern times!

See also: Basilica – SHOW_THE_ARTICLE

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Basilica

Above: The base of one of the ‘piers’ from the Basilica. It is still in situ below ground, under Leadenhall Market.

If your Latin is a bit shaky – or possibly non-existent – it might be a good idea to explain what a Basilica was. The word can also be applied to a church but, in the context of the ancient Roman settlement known as Londinium – which stood on the site now occupied by the City of London – the easiest way to describe the building in today’s terms is as ‘a town hall’. Getting into a more detailed explanation, the word means an ancient Roman public building where courts were held, as well as serving other official and public functions. It was where the magistrate or other officials were seated. The basilica was centrally located in every Roman town, usually adjacent to the main Forum (the market place).

It may surprise you to learn that, although the remains have been in the ground for the almost 2,000 years, the sites of most Roman buildings surviving from Londinium have only been discovered since the time of the Second World War. Until 1760 the entire length of the Roman Wall surrounding Londinium was complete, along with the ancient gatehouses. After that date, the City Corporation removed the gatehouses and allowed citizens to remove the wall (at their own expense). That is why only a few short lengths of the wall remain to be seen today.

Historians in the 18th and 19th centuries knew that there were pieces of Roman masonry in the ground and occasionally they were uncovered due to a new building being erected. However, the ‘bigger picture’ of how Londinium was laid out did not emerge until the 1950s and it continues to be revealed as time goes by in the 21st century. The Basilica was one of the ‘big finds’ of the 19th century in the City of London. The remains were revealed during the construction of Leadenhall Market in 1880-82 and further foundations were also discovered in Cornhill. That could be considered as the first step in finding out the layout of the buildings and streets of Roman London (Londinium).

Since the 19th century, techniques in archaeology have improved dramatically. During the Second War London suffered terrible devastation, including the City of London. In 1945, archaeologists hardly had to dig down in the ground to notice a whole variety of Roman structures. Evidence for the sites of several Roman baths was uncovered along with the footings of the Roman Wall in several places along its original course. The 1950s saw the discovery of the Temple of Mithras. The 1980s saw the discovery of the first evidence for the Roman amphitheatre. Many other remarkable finds relating to Londinium were discovered but they are discussed in other blogs.

Above: Model in the Museum of London showing the Basilica (the large building towards the top of the picture) with the Forum, or market place, below.

Returning to the Basilica, it is generally accepted that the Romans invaded Britain in AD 43. Londinium was probably founded about AD 50 and for nearly 400 years the town remained the centre for administration, finance and trade in Roman Britain. It is believed that the Basilica was built originally in AD 70 and was enlarged later – between AD 90 and AD 120. It was the largest building of its type north of the Alps.

Above: Large scale map of part of the City of London showing the position of the Basilica and the Forum relative to the modern Gracechurch Street.

The picture at the top of the article shows a base of a ‘pier’ which is the only surviving part of the Basilica in situ. Its position is at basement-level below the present Leadenhall Market. It served as the base of an arch in one of the Basilica’s arcades. The Basilica stood on the north side of of the Forum which is seen in the model of the Basilica and the Forum. Comparing the length of the Basilica on the large scale map, it was more twice the length of the Royal Exchange (seen along the top of the map) and more than three times the E-W width of Lloyds Insurance (whose modern building by Rogers is seen on the far right of the map). In short, the Basilica was huge and covered a large part of the present Leadenhall Market in the east and extended west along about a third of the length of Cornhill.

Above: Overlay plotted onto a section of Google Maps, showing the line of the Roman Wall and the position of the Basilica and the Forum in Londinium.

On the ground, a road led north from the wooden bridge – later to become the site of the old medieval London Bridge. The road later became Fish Street Hill and the southern part of Gracechurch. What is today the northern part of Gracechurch Street was used in Roman times by the Forum and the Basilica. From the north side of the Basilica, a road ran north, passing through what was later called Bishopsgate and may have been responsible for the formation of the modern street with the same name.

From what has been said, the site of the Basilica has been well-known since Victorian times – when the present Leadenhall Market was constructed 1880-82. Almost exactly 100 years later, the land to the NW of the market buildings was acquired in order to build new offices. Rescue excavations in the form of an archaeological dig took place between 1984 and 1986 before the construction work began. The dig was carried out by the Museum of London who, in order to make the general public aware of what an important site this was, had a large hoarding erected beside Leadenhall Street with the wording ‘Site of London’s first Town Hall’ painted on it. The excavated site was at the corner of Leadenhall Street and Gracechurch Street and the resulting offices were called Leadenhall Court.

Modern offices have a relatively short life. Having stood for only about 30 years, the building is (at the time of writing) empty and plans have been submitted to demolish what stands on the site and erect new taller offices to be known as ‘1 Leadenhall Street’. Whether any further archaeological finds will be made remains to be seen. The foundations completed during the late 1980s may have completely obliterated any remaining archaeological evidence. It is just possible that the ancient Basilica site will make the headlines once more over the next few years.

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Turkish Baths, Bishopsgate

Above: Looking west (towards Old Broad Street) at the building which is now used as a functions venue. The ‘star and crescent’ is just visible above the onion-shaped cupula.

There was a time when the wealthy men of London – and also the women – really knew how to relax and enjoy life. One way was by taking a Turkish bath. The whole experience was lavish in the extreme. If anyone was to enjoy such an experience today, the steam would almost certainly be a problem because you can imagine the wealthy gent sitting there thumbing his iPhone. This was an experience savoured by Victorians and Edwardians in London – as well as many other cities – which lasted into the middle of the 20th century. In London, there were Turkish baths in Russell Square; Turkish baths in Northumberland Avenue; a swimming pool and Turkish baths in Pall Mall, at the Royal Automobile Club; Turkish baths in Ironmonger Row, a street which runs north from the church of St Luke, Old Street; and Turkish baths at Porchester Spa, Queensway, just north of Hyde Park. The list is not complete.

The Turkish baths near Bishopsgate were also referred to as ‘New Broad Street Turkish Baths’. The thoroughfare called New Broad Street is actually the western continuation of the path through St Botolph’s churchyard on the western side of Old Broad Street.

There had been baths of one kind or another on the Bishopsgate site since 1817. By 1847, Dr Robert James Culverwell was providing Medical Baths there and a year later there were baths in Argyll Place, near Oxford Circus. Both these establishments, known as the Argyll Baths, were continued for about eight years by the widow of Dr James – Ann Eliza Culverwell – after his death in 1852. By March 1860, they were both owned by Argyll Baths, who added Turkish baths and renamed them ‘The Argyll Turkish Baths’ and ‘The New Broad Street Turkish Baths’. They changed hands again at a date before 1883, this time coming under the ownership of a firm called Jones & Co and, in 1885, both establishments were refurbished.

One of their brochures states ‘Better baths have replaced the now obsolete forms, and the rooms have been enlarged and thoroughly ventilated, thereby removing all those drawbacks which passed muster in bygone years, but which are now no longer up to the present scientific standard.’ The baths were open from seven in the morning until nine at night. A ‘plain hot-air bath, with shower’ cost 3/6d and the ‘complete process’ cost 4/-. Also available were perfumed vapour, Russian vapour, Vichy, and sulphur vapour baths. There were scented showers, together with ascending, descending and spinal douches.

A few years later they were sold to Henry and James Forder Nevill who already owned more similar establishments in London than any other company. This was their fifth such acquisition. Between 1893 and 1895 Nevill demolished the old baths at Bishopsgate to build new baths which rivalled those in Northumberland Avenue (built 1884). The new baths at Bishopsgate were designed by the architect G Harold Elphick, using Craven, Dunhill tiles. Elphick modelled the design on the 19th-century shrine at the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, Jerusalem.

The site was cramped but a good one – being so close to Liverpool Street Station, the Stock Exchange and Lloyds. These Turkish baths were clearly designed to attract the ‘City gent’. The baths do not appear to have been open for women bathers, probably because the site was so small, with no space for separate changing rooms.

The baths themselves were partly underneath the original New Broad Street House (now demolished) and partly underneath Alderman’s Walk (the former name of the footpath which crosses the churchyard. The entrance forms part of a kiosk in the upper portion of which were water tanks, masked by a Moorish style wall, and surmounted by a similarly styled onion-shaped cupola, decorated with a star and crescent.

Entering the kiosk, the bather went down a winding staircase, lined by tin-glazed earthenware (fäience) tiles to the entrance vestibule, where clients bought the ticket.

Three of the Nevills baths (they omitted the final letter ‘e’ of Neville when naming their baths) charged 2/6d before 6.00 pm in the evening and 1/6d afterwards. But the newer baths at Northumberland Avenue were rather more expensive – 3/6d before 7.00 pm in the evening and 2/- afterwards. It is possible that being so close to the Stock Exchange and Lloyds, the Nevilles thought that City gents could afford the higher rate at their New Broad Street establishment also.

The baths closed for normal use in the 1950s and remained empty and disused for several decades. After various owners using the premises for several purposes, including a restaurant,, the building is now called the ‘Victorian Bath House’, used as an unusual venue for private events. The small two-storey building – one at ground level and one below ground – is Grade II listed. The address of the building is 8 Bishopsgate Churchyard.

This is one of the more unusual buildings in the Bishopsgate area – standing beside the footpath through the large churchyard of St Botolph Without Bishopsgate. It escaped being bombed during the Second World War. An even greater feat was to escape being demolished due to extensive office development in the locality which has taken place from the 1980s onwards and continues into the 21st century.

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St Ethelburga the Virgin

Above: View of the restored church. Its ‘new neighbour’ on the left is an overbearing office block called ‘100 Bishopsgate’ – completed in 2019.

Bishopsgate (Street) certainly has some interesting churches standing beside it or nearby. One is the church of St Ethelburga the Virgin which is believed to have Saxon origins. It stands on the east side of Bishopsgate (Street), a short distance south of the junction with Camomile Street.

St Ethelburga – more correctly spelt Æthelburh – was the founder and first Abbess of the double monastery of Barking, where she was buried. St Ethelburga was the sister of Earconwald, Bishop of London, who became Bishop in AD 675. St Ethelburga also founded the church of All Hallows Barking, in the City of London on land given to her by her brother Eorconwald about AD 675. She was the first woman to be the head of an abbey in England. Having refused an arranged marriage to a pagan prince, she was banished to an abbey by her brother and appointed to Barking Abbey in AD 675. St Ethelburga is especially remembered for her heroic conduct in caring for the sick during an outbreak of the plague in AD 664 which eventually killed her and most of her community. She died after the date AD 686. In the Anglican calendar, her feast day is 11 October.

Barking developed into a village and an ancient parish in the County of Essex, 10 miles (16 km) east of Charing Cross. Barking today is the administrative centre of the London Borough of Barking and Dagenham – an Outer London Borough. The remains of the abbey are still visible in a large park near the centre of the town.

Returning to the subject of the church of St Ethelburga, in the City, it was in existence by about AD 1000 which means that it was founded in Saxon times. The first documented mention was in 1278. The body of the church was last built about 1411. Before his last voyage to Canada, the English sea explorer and navigator, Henry Hudson, took communion at the church in 1610. During the voyage, the crew who had mutinied and Hudson was cast adrift with other members of the crew from his ship. He was last seen alive on 23 June 1611 (aged 45–46) in James Bay, North America.

The Great Fire of London (1666) did not reach the church of St Ethelburga and so it was spared destruction at that time. The bell turret was added in 1775. The church suffered only minor bomb damage during the Blitz of the Second World War and was repaired in 1953. In 1954, the church lost its parish to St Helen, Bishopsgate, and became a Guild Church until 1991, when it became a Chapel of Ease to the church of St Helen and was used for storage. Having stood unharmed for so many centuries, St Ethelburga – the smallest church in the City of London – was a real gem and the sense of history as you entered the ancient building was quite wonderful.

Above: View of the church in 1975 (from a digitised slide).

After such a long history, the church was totally destroyed by an IRA bomb on Saturday 24 April 1993 which exploded almost outside the church. About 70% of the church was destroyed, with only the lower parts of the walls and part of the eastern wall of the building (which was furthest from the blast) remaining. Most of the street was also devastated and closed for many months while the rubble was cleared away and new buildings erected. The site of the little church stood in a ruinous state for several years until a decision was taken on what should be done to effect repairs. The main question was whether a modern church should replace the old one or whether it should be rebuilt in its original form. It was eventually decided to restore the building to its original state and it was reopened officially by Prince Charles in November 2002. Some of the original stonework was retained within the restored building – notably the south arcade.

Because of its status as a Chapel of Ease, regular services are no longer held in the building. Instead, it has become a centre for peace. Using the words taken from their Website, those who run St Ethelburga’s today ‘explore how faith and spiritual traditions can mobilise individuals and communities to take action for a more inclusive, peaceful and sustainable world.’

Public access can be gained from Bishopsgate (Street) by walking along the side of the church and through an ornamental gate into the little garden that was once the original churchyard. The building is in the possession of the City Parochial Charities.

See also: Barking Abbey – SHOW_THE_ARTICLE

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St Mary of Bethlehem, Priory of

Above: City Plaque mounted on the wall of the Great Eastern Hotel, on the north side of Liverpool Street.

The subject of religious houses in London is a large and complex one. The City of London certainly had a large number of religious houses – both within and just outside its ancient Roman Wall. This particular priory is a good example. We shall look at its full history and of what became of it after the Dissolution of the Monasteries (1536). We will explain how the Priory came to be founded and how it started to care for the mentally insane. The other sites that the hospital occupied will be listed but they will not be described in detail.

Before we go any further, it should be pointed out that, from early times, the Priory of St Mary of Bethlehem started to care for people who were suffering from many different mental disorders. For us today, living in the 21st century, most of these mental illnesses have names but in medieval times they were not fully understood – being mainly attributed to a condition they simply called ‘madness’. With time, the priory was dissolved but its care of the mentally ill continued under the name of ‘Bethlehem Hospital’. It has existed on three different sites and is now better known as ‘Bethlem Royal Hospital’.

Above: The priory and hospital stood between Bishopsgate (Street) and the open ground then called Moorfields which is now known as Finsbury Circus. The incomplete Copper Engraving was probably produced about 1559. A detailed section of the same map is shown below.

The Priory of St Mary of Bethlehem was founded in 1247 when Simon FitzMary, alderman and sheriff, gave his land and houses for a priory which also had a hospital. It was a priory of canons with brethren and sisters of the Order of St Mary of Bethlehem and as such was subject to the Bishop of Bethlehem. The members of the Priory and Hospital of St Mary of Bethlehem wore a distinctive red star on their mantles and capes.

The first reference to the site having a hospital was 1329. By 1377 it was in use for the care of the insane. From 1407 the building was taken over by the City Corporation and became an institution for the insane. At the Dissolution of the Monasteries (1536) the priory was closed but in 1546 it was given by Henry VIII to the City and converted into the ‘Bethlehem Hospital for lunatics’.

Looking after mental patients at such an early date makes it England’s first mental institution. Although we know it specialised in ‘madness’, its patients also included people with learning disabilities, ‘falling sickness’ (or epilepsy) and dementia. Those who became patients were usually the poor and marginalised members of society – sometimes believed to be dangerous – who usually lacked friends or family to support them. In the days of the priory, it was seen as a religious duty to care for and feel compassion for people afflicted by madness.

Above: Detail from the previous map. The probable extent of the site of the priory and hospital is shaded in YELLOW.

On the detailed map, the main entrance from Bishopsgate (Street) is shown as ‘Bedlam Gate’. Below the other label of ‘Bedlame’ is shown the hospital chapel and its little graveyard (on the right). The priory had a path leading west to a covered gateway leading to Moorfields over the River Walbrook. Notice the church of St Botolph Without Bishopsgate and its churchyard is shown near the bottom of the map.

It can be seen from the two maps that the buildings stood on the west side of the street called Bishopsgate and extended north – covering land that later became Liverpool Street, the old Great Eastern Hotel and the southern parts of Liverpool Street Station. The gate to the property (from the street called Bishopsgate) stood immediately north of the White Hart Inn. Part of the site of the inn became a pub which only closed about 2010. The premises are now in use as Metro Bank.

The site in Bishopsgate (Street) continued as Bethlehem Hospital until 1674 when new premises were built on the south side of Finsbury Circus. The buildings at the original site are now covered by Liverpool Street, the old Great Eastern Hotel and part of Liverpool Street Station. The buildings at Finsbury Circus were demolished and new offices erected. The hospital made a second move in 1812 when new buildings were erected on a large site at St George’s Fields, in Southwark. The building and its grounds remain to this day and are now used by the Imperial War Museum.

The buildings in Southwark were vacated in 1931 when the hospital transferred its present site at Monk’s Orchard Road, in the London Borough of Bromley. Its name is now ‘Bethlem Royal Hospital’ but it is also known as ‘St Mary Bethlehem’, ‘Bethlehem Hospital’ and ‘Bedlam’. The psychiatric hospital is closely associated with the Maudsley Hospital, which is part of King’s College Hospital, at Camberwell.

See also: Bethlehem Hospital, Bishopsgate – SHOW_THE_ARTICLE

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