Tower Bridge from Westow Hill

Above: Tower Bridge and the Tower of London seen from Westow Hill.

Inner London has been likened to a saucer because there are hills to be found but, compared to the size of the land, they only rise by a small amount. In fact, the analogy is a good one if you consider a cross-section of Inner London from north to south. Both the cross section of the land and of a saucer are very similar. Of course, working east to west through the centre of London, the land is flat and almost level.

There are a few small hills in Inner London – like Denmark Hill and Herne Hill. However, the highest land is to be found along a ridge to the north of Central London – with place names like Stamford Hill, Highgate and Hampstead. In the south, there is another ridge topped by a long winding road called Sydenham Hill, Crystal Palace Parade and Westow Hill.

The last named road has one of the finest vantage points in Inner London. The turnings off one side of this road ‘drop like a stone’ due to the steep gradient. On a clear sunny day, when the air across London is not filled with smog, the views are superb, making it possible to see places of interest like the Tower of London and Tower Bridge. The approximate distance from Westow Hill to Tower Bridge is about six miles.

If you know the riverside around Tower Bridge, it may be worth pointing out that the white walls below a grey cupula (in front of Tower Bridge) are the top part of the building that was once Courage Brewery. The building is now luxury apartments. At the same level as the old brewery but further to the right are the tops of more white walls. You may just be able to read the two words Butler’s Wharf. The wharf, one of the largest in Inner London has also been converted into luxury apartments with the well-known Pont de la Tour Restaurant at pavement level. If you are wondering about the horizon in the background, it is part of a ridge on which Alexandra Palace stands.

-ENDS-

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Subjects (Help Notes)

The ‘Know Your London’ Web pages cover topics related to Inner London (which includes the City of London, the City of Westminster and the other eleven Inner London Boroughs). Just a few topics are drawn from some of the Outer London Boroughs. Every topic is indexed under at least one area listed in the Categories (shown down the right-hand side of the Webpage). In addition, there are four additional category groups (Common, Persons, People and Subjects).

This article provides help notes about ‘Subjects’. Subject key-words start with ‘4-‘. At the time of writing these Help Notes, the alphabetical list of Subjects includes:

4-Christmas
4-Churchyards
4-Coaching Days
4-Comment
4-London in 1891
4-Maps of London
4-Markets
4-Mini-Lecture
4-Moment in Time
4-Parish Markers
4-Prisons
4-Property Marks
4-Reminiscing
4-Toilet Buildings

It will be seen from the list above that a Subject can refer to a large variety of different topics. By clicking on one of the Subjects on the right-hand side of the Webpage, you will be provided with a detailed list of all the topics that relate to that particular Subject. The number of Subject’ categories continues to grow as more blogs are written and, therefore, more Subjects are added.

It is hoped that the list will grow so that it becomes possible to look up a Subject on this Website and obtain a related group of places in London to enable further study.

Reading the Blogs on the Webpage

If you ‘Follow’ the ‘Know Your London’ Website, you will receive email notifications three times each week. Although the email version contains the full text of a blog, you can also read that blog online. This is simply achieved by clicking on the BLUE heading of any email.

The main advantage of reading the blog online is that it will contain any updates (like corrections to spelling errors in the email version). The other advantage is that you can also see and have access to the ‘Categories’ – which are displayed on the right-hand side of the Webpage. The long list has key-words that start with various symbols and numbers. The coding for the long list is given in the paragraphs below.

Coding for the Categories

Although there is only one heading on the right of the Webpage called ‘Categories’, there are six different types of Category. They are listed below along with brief descriptions.

/ Key-words starting with ‘/‘ denote the areas into which London has been divided. Each Inner London Borough is sub-divided into the pre-1965 Metropolitan Boroughs. The City of London is divided into 13 groups of Wards. The City of Westminster is divided into its three original Metropolitan Boroughs and the Metropolitan Borough of Westminster is further sub-divided into five areas of study.

o- Key-words starting with ‘o-‘ identify small areas in London with a strong identity. These small areas are part of an area which starts with ‘/’.

1- Key-words starting with ‘1-‘ identify Common item. That means they are items which relate to more than one area. For example, London Bridge is joined onto land in the City of London and also joined onto land in the London Borough of Southwark.

2- Key-words starting with ‘2-‘ identify Persons. Examples are ‘Chaucer’ or ‘Wren’.

3- Key-words starting with ‘3-‘ identify People. This category relates to groups of people (unlike ‘Persons’ which relates to single names). Examples are ‘Jews in London’ or ‘Vikings’.

4- Key-words starting with ‘4-‘ identify Subjects. For example, ‘Markets’ or ‘Prisons’. Subjects can be almost any topic which acts as a theme.

It should be noted that the list of key-words under the general heading ‘Categories’ continues to grow as the blogs increase week by week.

General Help

Did you know that one of the options on the BLACK bar below the picture at the top of the Webpage is labelled ‘Help’. Clicking on this will reveal ‘Quick Help’ and ‘Detailed Help’ pages which provide further information about the structure of the Know Your London Website.

-ENDS-

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Domesday Book

Above: Part of a typical page from the Domesday Book. On the first line of the new paragraph can be seen the name for ‘Greenwich’ (highlighted by the scribe with a red line through it). The following line shows the name of ‘Lewisham’ (also with a red line through it).

Nearly everyone in the English-speaking world has heard of the Domesday Book, along with many others who do not even speak English. The curious thing about it is that very few people know much about what is written in it and almost nobody has ever read even a small part of it. It is likely that only a handful of historians have ever read all of it. If the book is so well-known – as a name – why is it not read more widely? We will get to that question a little later.

The Domesday Book was commissioned at Christmas 1085 by William I – usually known as William the Conqueror. It was to be a survey of the wealth and assets of his kingdom and the survey covered most of England. William needed to raise taxes to pay for his army and by knowing the wealth of his subjects he could then raise money from the wealthy ones. William I had defeated Harold II at the Battle of Hastings in 1066 and he was crowned at Westminster Abbey on Christmas Day 1066. It was just 19 years later that he decided to commission the Domesday survey.

When it was first commissioned, the survey was not called by today’s familiar name. It became known as the Domesday Book because of a play on words relating it to doomsday, the day of final judgement in the Christian religion. The information that the survey collected was so complete that it was compared to the information and judgement made on doomsday.

The answers to a set of defined questions were written down by men who conducted the survey. The results were collated and hand-written before being published as a book. Most of the text was in Latin with a few additional notes in Old French. Only scholars who have learned to read the handwritten script are able to read it. In order to read it, you also have to know Latin and understand Old French. For that reason, only partial translations ever appeared in history books until the late 20th century when the entire text was translated into Modern English and published in normal everyday text. Even having the modern translation, the text is rather boring which means that few people ever take the trouble to read it.

The generally accepted date for the publication was in 1086 but that is now being called into question and a later date now seems much more realistic. There is no doubt that the Domesday Book was commissioned on Christmas Day 1085. However, to gather the information, scribes had to be sent into every shire and write down the name of every manor and record the population and the resources – described in the number of animals (like sheep and cows), the number of ploughs (which indicated how much land could be cultivated) and the type of land (like pasture, fields or woodland). There are no less than 13,418 locations set out on the pages of the book. In general terms, it has been assumed that the information was collected during 1086 and that the final book was published in 1087. In fact William I died in 1087 but that would not have affected its production.

The contents of many documents contributed to the final information in the Domesday Book. Some of those documents are known to date from 1089. Some of them are believed to have been written in 1106. It has been argued recently by scholars that the records may not have been completed until as late as 1114. If the new research is correct, it would mean that the information contained in the Domesday Book could have been produced between 1098 and 1114 which puts the date for the final information between 11 and 27 years later than has previously been assumed.

In general, discovering that the book’s completion was later than scholars had previously thought is not revolutionary information but it does allow for the likely reality of the situation. To have completed such a detailed survey in just one year would have been nothing other than miraculous. Even today it would have been very impressive. To think of the Domesday Book being produced within a longer time frame of about 20 years is a much more realistic concept.

-ENDS-

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Plimsoll, Samuel (Memorial)

Above: The bust of Plimsoll on top of the large memorial. In the background is part of Embankment Place – large office above Charing Cross Station.

Samuel Plimsoll, English politician and social reformer, (1824-98). He was born in Colston’s Parade, Bristol, on 10 February 1824. Plimsoll was a merchant, as well as a pioneering reformer. He became known as ‘the sailor’s friend’. He worked to improve what he saw as dangerous practices in merchant shipping. For his services in saving lives at sea, there is a memorial to Plimsoll in Bristol but there is also an impressive memorial to him on the Victoria Embankment, in London. It faces the Thames to the south of the road junction where Victoria Embankment meets with Northumberland Avenue.

One of Plimsoll’s greatest achievements was the creation of the ‘Plimsoll Line’, in response to his dismay at the large numbers of deaths due to the overloading of cargo ships. This line, also known as the ‘Plimsoll Mark’, was drawn on the hull of cargo ships to denote the maximum depth to which a ship could be safely loaded. In 1867, the Liverpool Rubber Company bestowed Plimsoll’s name on their rubber-soled canvas shoes, because the line between the sole and the upper resembled the Plimsoll Line on ships. They had previously been known as ‘sand-shoes’.

A ship-owner wants to have the ship fully laden for obvious reasons. However, the buoyancy of sea-water varies around the world – due to the varying amount of salt. Until the marking of ships with the Plimsoll Line, a ship that was fully-laden would become over-laden when it travelled to another port, creating dangerous conditions for the vessel. The result was that it sometimes sank. The Plimsoll Mark took account of this, with various safe-levels being indicated on the Mark. Officially, the marking is known as the International load line. Researchers have found out that the temperature and salinity of the water plays a key role in deciding the height at which a ship rests in the water.

Above: The inscription on the memorial. The Plimsoll Line is shown above the lettering.

Plimsoll was an active Member of Parliament at Westminster and he was responsible for the passing of the Merchant Shipping Act in 1875. He was highly concerned with the safety of the people working in the maritime world being drowned due to excessive goods that were loaded without any idea about the capacity of a vessel. He even took the time to conduct some serious research and was most concerned to discover the sorry state of affairs. He found out that nearly a thousand British sailors lost their lives each year due to the overloading of vessels. Plimsoll was deeply affected by this and he determined to bring about a change, to protect the sailors.

By 1930, the International load line was enforced by 54 countries around the world. To illustrate the problems of loading a vessel in fresh- or sea-water, the marks to be found on a vessel now indicate loading for ‘Tropical Fresh Water’ (TF), ‘Fresh Water’ (F). For sea-water, there are four marks – ‘Tropic’ (T), ‘Summer’ (S), ‘Winter’ (W) and ‘Winter North Atlantic’ (WNA). International law defines the exact size and shape of the mark which must appear on both sides of any cargo vessel.

The Grade II listed memorial to Plimsoll was erected in 1929, designed by Ferdinand Victor Blundstone of Kensington. The bronze, which weighs three tons, stands only a short distance north of the Houses of Parliament which would seem a fitting location to remember a man who was instrumental in ensuring that the profits of a ship’s owner were not put before the lives of the crew.

-ENDS-

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Fenchurch Street, 20

Above: The office block viewed from East Smithfield.

This large office block is the ‘new kid on the block’. Its name is ’20 Fenchurch Street’ because – er, let me think – it stands at 20 Fenchurch Street. Its entrance is from the south side of Fenchurch Street – which is the north side of the office block. In fact, it is so large that its south side almost extends south to the north side of Eastcheap.

A large box-like office block had been previously erected on the site in 1968, designed in ‘podium’ style with a large base of a few storeys with a tall tower on top. The old offices occupied a large area of land but in the 1960s it was considered essential to have a large low-rise base – for the stability of the building – on which a smaller tower could then be constructed. With time, building techniques moved on and the 1960s offices were demolished to make way for a tall tower whose base completely filled the available site. Construction started on new offices in 2010 which rise to 525 feet (160 m). There are 34 floors of office space topped by a large viewing deck (or ‘sky garden’), bar and restaurants on floors 35–37. Costing £200 million, the design was by the Uruguayan architect Rafael Viñoly. with the building being completed in April 2014.

The view of the building shown above was taken in autumn 2018 from a dual-carriageway called East Smithfield, not far from the Tower of London. The abundance of foliage is formed by trees surrounding the moat at the Tower. The north side of the office building (on the right of the view) is almost vertical. The south side has a pronounced curve and faces towards the Thames. From the position of the view, the curve is a reminder of much earlier architecture (but not in a good way) when 16th-century houses had a first-floor that extended out from the walls on the ground floor and the second-floor extended out even further from the wall of the first-floor. Such houses were timber-framed. A street with such houses on both sides meant that the roofs on one side almost touched those on the other side. If you are wondering why houses were built in that way, the answer was related to the wooden beams that supported the floors. A wooden beam will tend to sag after a number of years of supporting a floor. By extending the beam outwards, the weight of the floor above kept the beam under tension and, therefore, helped to keep the floor level. Of course, it sagged in the end and many timber-framed houses have supporting pillars to take the weight of the ceiling beams which are also supporting the floor of the room above.

Returning to 20 Fenchurch Street, there was no need for such a style when it was constructed. The top-heavy design is partly intended to maximise floor space towards the top of the building, where rent is typically higher. Not only does the shape make a statement of architectural style but mainly it gains extra office space on the upper floors. In a word, the reason for the design seems to have been greed. Along with many other strangely-shaped offices in the City of London, this one has acquired a nickname of the ‘Walkie Talkie’ due to its 1960s phone-like shape.

One major design fault was the curved south side which, being entirely covered with glass, concentrated the sun’s light in a similar fashion to a simple glass lens. The result was that a car parked on a street near the building was damaged by the heat from the sun’s rays. This led to the nick-name being amended to the ‘Walkie-Scorchie’ or the ‘Fryscraper’. In May 2014, it was announced that a permanent awning would be installed on the south side of the higher floors of the tower to prevent similar incidents in the future.

All things considered, the large tower block is too overbearing for a site so near the Thames. The large bulk intrudes on views looking from the east towards Tower Bridge and the Tower of London. The result is that the City now acts as a strange backdrop of assorted shapes each ‘fighting’ for attention by world-class architects who you would have thought could have made a better job of it. Each design costs around a quarter of a billion Pounds a time.

-ENDS-

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Wells Fargo, 33 King William Street

Above: A Wells Fargo coach on show in the window of the new premises.

If you grew up in a house that had black and white television, you probably watched the many ‘cowboys and Indians’ films on ‘the box’. They often portrayed a Wells Fargo coach – either shown under attack by the Indians or shown being robbed by the ‘bad guys’. Let’s not even mention the Lone Ranger and his faithful friend Tonto.

If you think all this reminiscing has nothing to do with the City of London then you would be wrong. Wells Fargo & Company is an American multinational financial services company with headquarters in San Francisco, California. There are also central offices throughout the United States. It is the world’s second-largest bank by market capitalisation and the fourth largest bank in the United States by total assets. Wells Fargo remains the second-largest bank in home mortgage servicing and debit cards in the USA.

In 1852, Henry Wells and William Fargo founded ‘Wells, Fargo & Co’ to serve the West. The new company offered the service of banking (buying gold and selling paper bank drafts as good as gold) and express services (rapid delivery of gold and anything else valuable). You have probably seen more movie footage of Wells Fargo stagecoaches than you have ever seen of English stagecoaches.

Wells Fargo has recently spent £300 million on a new European headquarters, situated in the City of London just north of London Bridge, at 33 King William Street. Although the name Wells Fargo is not a bank that people living in London would be familiar with, Americans visiting England certainly use its services. At present (January 2019) the new building is not up and running. Wells Fargo Capital Finance (UK) Limited has its head office and registered office on the 4th floor at 90 Long Acre, in Westminster. In addition, Wells Fargo Bank, National Association (WFBNA) has its principal place of business in the UK at One Plantation Place, 30 Fenchurch Street, in the City of London.

Wells Fargo still owns and display 10 of their original stagecoaches in their history museums across the US. In addition, there are 13 reproduction stagecoaches in the bank’s offices, with a fleet of 17 that are used almost every weekend in parades and events across the nation. Within the new premises in the City of London is one of their well-known stagecoaches, which is already on display. Presumably, it is also one their replicas. Nevertheless, it is an unusual feature in a City office block.

Above: The new offices that are yet to be fully opened, viewed across the busy King William Street.

The new premises are situated in a new office building, designed by John Robertson Architects for the real estate developer H B Reavis. The site in King William Street was acquired in late 2013. Construction began in mid-2014 and was completed by late-2018. The building is the first real estate purchase outside the US for Wells Fargo. The 11 storey building is at 33 King William Street, on the same side of the street as the Fishmongers’ Hall. The design includes a double-height entrance hall. On top of the building is a roof garden accessible for the staff only. Landscaped by Townshend Landscape Architects and covering one-third of an acre, it is designed to mimic an English country garden. The offices provide 225,000 square feet of floor-space and carry the name ’33 Central’.

The move into the new building at 33 King William Street will enable Wells Fargo to bring its 850 London staff into one location. They are at the moment scattered in four sites across the City and Central London. From London, the bank handles American corporate clients doing business in the UK as well as local companies that want to transact in the US.

It would seem to be a bold move for Wells Fargo to decide on London for its European headquarters amid all the turmoil of Brexit – at a time when several international financial organisations are making plans to relocate their headquarters from London to a city in the EU, like Strasbourg, in France.

-ENDS-

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Prusom’s Island

Above: An old cast-iron nameplate at the western end of today’s Prusom Street. The right-hand end has been damaged. It is mounted on the corner wall of a pub called the White Swan and Cuckoo. The two lamps, used to light up the wall of the pub at night, only add to the clutter in the image.

Every now and again, as you walk around London, you stumble across a name that will strike you as curious for one reason or another. Right up until the 1980s, a turning off the north side of Wapping High Street had a large painted sign on the wall of a large warehouse with the unusual name of ‘Prusom’s Island’. The warehouse was later converted into apartments and the sign was removed when Wapping – along with many other riverside parts of London – was redeveloped by the London Docklands Development Corporation (LDDC). Unfortunately, the author never took the trouble to photograph the sign and it would seem that nobody else did either. There are no surviving photographs in the local history library. The street was renamed ‘Hilliard’s Court’ and the ancient name has been lost for ever.

Who was Prusom? Did he exist? Was he a real person or is the name a corruption of some other word? Where was the island? What kind of an island was it? These are all questions that spring to mind when you see the name and, after considerable searching in the local history archives as Tower Hamlets, very few answers can be found.

The name ‘Prusom’s Island’ appears on old maps of London for the riverside locality of Wapping. It is tempting to think that ‘Prusom’ might have been a family name but even that has not been established. There may never have been a ‘Mr Prusom’, it might just be a corruption of some other name or some other word.

Similarly, with ‘Island’ in the name, the question arises as to the extent of the land. One thing seems definite – there was no island in the sense of a piece of land surrounded by water. However, much of the land in and around Wapping was low-lying and flat beside the Thames and subject to constant flooding. The land does rise as it reaches The Highway (which is further inland) but the streets shown in Wapping were often under water due to high tides. The surrounding land was known as ‘Wapping Marsh’, possibly with water to be seen in ditches. The name Prusom’s Island may have arisen because a small piece of land became an island in times of flooding which, for Wapping, was a continual problem.

Village Life in Wapping and Its Trades

Wapping developed as a hamlet – one of the many Tower Hamlets – that were beside the Thames, including Shadwell, Ratcliffe and Limehouse to the east. It was not until 1694 that Wapping became a separate parish and the church of St John was built. The church was bombed during the Second World War and not rebuilt but its fine church tower survived and is still standing beside Scandrett Street.

In the early 13th century there were two mills by the riverside in Wapping leased from the Dean and Chapter of St Paul’s. All the corn for the common bake-house at the cathedral was ground at those mills. There were also beer houses. The medieval hamlet looked out onto a patchwork of ditches, dykes and pasture. On very high tides, it was just a large marsh, dotted with islands, like Prusom’s Island which survived as a street name until modern times.

Wapping was closely associated with the sea. It was a place where sailors lived and became a place where those associated with ships lived and worked. John Stow’s history of London describes Wapping as ‘a continual street or filthy straight passage with alleys and small tenements or cottages inhabited by sailors’ victuallers.’ Stow was writing around 1600 when there was a long street, lined with houses following the curved line of the Thames.

There were ship-builders and small docks along the river bank. Men with skills in making ship’s chandlery also lived there. Another trade was rope-making, with rope-yards nearby. There was biscuit-making (producing ship’s biscuits) as well as mast-, oar- and block-making. In short, nearly everything needed to fit out a ship was made in or near Wapping.

As Wapping became a village, many of the residents probably spent their whole lives living there. However, unlike many country villages, this was constantly experiencing sailors staying for a few weeks or months before going back to their ship, after it had been repaired. Ships from many locations around the globe also visited Wapping and so the villagers probably became used to strangers in their midst, often talking in unfamiliar languages. With this in mind, it is possible that the name ‘Prusom’ is a corruption of some other name or even the misunderstanding of a foreign word. Due to the passage of time, we shall probably never know how the name arose.

Above: Part of Stanford’s map of 1891 showing the street name of Prusom’s Island.

The Spelling of the Name

• One of the earliest maps to show the name is Morgan’s Map of 1682. It shows the name as ‘Sprucers Island’ or ‘Sprucens Island’.
• Documents of 1693 show the name as ‘Sprucon’s Island’, ‘Pruson’s Island’, ‘Prussian Island’ or ‘Spruces Island’.
• John Rocque’s map of 1746 shows the name ‘Pruson’s Island’ as a street. Horwood’s map of 1799 shows the name ‘Pruisian Island’ as a street.
• Lockie’s Topography, published in 1810 is rather like a street directory. It lists the name as ‘Prussian Island’. There is also a comment saying ‘perhaps where sailors from Prussia settled’.
• Christopher and John Greenwood’s map of 1830 shows the name ‘Prusian Island’ as a street.
• A street address in 1834 lists the name as ‘Prusom’s Island, Wapping’. One commentator added ‘Prusom’s Island, which was at the eastern end of Cinnamon Street’.
• Edward Stanford’s map of 1891 shows the name ‘Prusom Island as a street (see map).
• Hermione Hobhouse, in the ‘Survey of London’, Vols 43 and 44, written in 1994, refers to ‘the long-lost name of Pruson (or Spruson’s) Island’.
• Today, there is a ‘Prusom Street’ nearby. Prusom Street was, until 1912, called ‘King Street’ and later it was known as Old Gravel lane’. There is no longer a street called ‘Prusom’s Island’.

Wapping as a Place Name

Wapping is known to have been a settlement in Saxon times. Some historians claim that the name derives from a local leader or chief called ‘Waeppa’ or an area known as ‘Waeppa’s people’. The earliest mention of Wapping was spelt as ‘Wappinges’ in 1220; and as ‘Wappingge atte Wose’ in 1345. The name is most likely to be related to the old English word ‘wase’ meaning mud which could be used here for a marsh.

The name of Wapping was usually associated with marshy land beside the Thames, sometimes being known as ‘Wapping in the Wose’.

River Defences

The hamlet of Wapping stood on very marshy land. An exceptionally high tide was able to flood the low-lying area. Just after Christmas 1323 was a ‘mighty flood, proceeding from the tempestuousness of the sea’ which breached the river wall, probably where Wapping Wall is now.

The street called Wapping Wall and the nearby streets called Green Bank and Hermitage Wall are all reminders that dykes that were built in the area to protect the land against flooding from the Thames. It was not the only land beside the Thames that was subject to flooding but the numerous dykes – later to become streets called ‘Walls – indicate that flooding for the residents was a constant danger.

It is possible that Prusom’s Island was a piece of land that remained above flood level when the surrounding land was under water – probably because it was slightly higher than some of the surrounding marshes.

Prusom’s Island (Development)

Standing on the north side of Wapping High Street, where it joins onto Garnet Street at its eastern end stood a large warehouse. In the mid-1980s it was converted by Wates Built Homes for use as 35 flats. Swinhoe Measures Partnership were the architects. Because the site was either on or very near to the the historic site of Prusom’s Island, the developer chose the same name for the building. The address is 135 Wapping High Street, Wapping, E1W 3NH.

The Prusom’s Island scheme earned the Housing Design Award in 1989. The conversion of Prusom’s Island was carried out as part of Wates’ overall scheme, the main part of which was the building of Towerside. According to the developers of Prusom’s Island (Development), the warehouse was ‘owned in the 1880s by Middleton and Sons, Wharfinger and Steam Shipping Company which handled all goods except tea and tobacco.

The remaining large warehouse is listed Grade II and it is one of many Victorian warehouses in Wapping to be retained and converted for modern uses. This has resulted in the area having a distinctive feel to it – almost as though the buildings are continuing to be used for their original purpose. There are strict planning rules applying to the immediate area which is a conservation zone encompassing both sides of Wapping Wall and both sides of the eastern end of Wapping High Street. Not only have the original warehouses been preserved and redeveloped but also new blocks of apartments have been designed to harmonise with the older structures.

-ENDS-

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